A list filter acts as a “middleman” between a SharePoint list and a web part that is consuming data from that list. Once you establish a connection between the List Filter and the web part itself, the latter simply receives all data from the List Filter instead of the list. This gives you two benefits — one, you can easily adjust what data is sent to the web part by simply adjusting the filter interface, and two, none of these adjustments actually affect the list data itself or require the creation of a custom view.
Filters Collection includes a number of different filter web parts, which do essentially the same thing, but allow you to apply the best kind of filter for certain kinds of list data. For instance, the Choice filter allows you to give users a set list of filtering values in the form of a drop down menu, a set of radio buttons, or series of check boxes (allowing for multiple selections).
This example shows a Choice Filter web part using the Radio Button Filter connected to a list. The list is displaying a filter icon next to the column title as a visual cue that this column is filtered. Bamboo automatically adds the icon to the column on which you filter.
You have a variety of filtering web parts in the Filters Collection and each one is configured individually when you add it to a page.